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00:00:19 - The Historical Development of Residential Segregation in Dayton

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Partial Transcript: Go back as far as you can, looking at the history of Dayton, I believe you will find that what is part of the problem, is that West Dayton was divided into two predominant areas.

Segment Synopsis: Alfred describes the historical racial and socioeconomic divides of the city of Dayton. He says that west of the Great Miami River resided predominantly Black and Jewish communities, and that east of the river were white communities. He also says that there were clear socioeconomic divides, specifically in east Dayton, where there was a large span of socioeconomic groups of white people. He then goes on to describe the conflicts between the poor of these various racial groups. He says that while Black people could readily find work, particularly for the wealthy Jewish and white populations, it was more difficult for the poor white groups to find employment if they lacked education and training. This sparked animosity from the poor white community toward the Black community. He then describes the attempts from the poor white population to emulate the affluent white people and live near to them, which eventually resulted in a stark separation of white people from people of color. He says that this residential segregation led to a practice of investment in white communities and divestment from Black communities and communities of color.

Keywords: Dayton; Great Miami River; Kettering; Oakwood; the Golden Triangle

Subjects: Literacy; Segregation; Wealth

00:10:34 - Black Wealth and Property Ownership

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Partial Transcript: In the late 1800's, you couldn't buy a house, because the law says that you can own property but the practice was that you can't own property.

Segment Synopsis: Alfred talks about the historic barring of Black people from owning property, and goes on to discuss the negative impacts of such restrictions. He says that when those restrictions fell away and Black people began to have sufficient wealth for buying homes, the restrictions were replaced with redlining, and so Black communities began to migrate further West where there were fewer restrictions. He says that this is how more historically Black communities developed to the West of Dayton. He goes on to discuss organizations that have information about the inception of this type of residential segregation. He mentions the Realtists, who were Black real estate agents who modified the term "realtor" because they were barred from having this title. He also says that the Miami Valley Fair Housing Center, along with the Realtists, would be able to provide an in-depth history of racial segregation in Dayton.

Keywords: East Dayton; Isolation; Miami Valley Fair Housing Center; Realtists; West Dayton; home ownership; residential segregation

Subjects: Rental housing; Right of property; Segregation

00:17:30 - Socioeconomic and Residential Mobility

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Partial Transcript: I can live any place I want to in Montgomery County.

Segment Synopsis: Alfred discusses the residential mobility of the middle and upper classes. He says that because of this, Dayton has changed in terms of racial makeup for people of middle and high incomes, the residential immobility has remained for the lower classes, and specifically for the Black poor. He says that practices such as redlining have continued, and this allows landowners to continue discriminatory practices against their renters, which keep renters from being able to rise out of that cycle.

Keywords: Mobility; eviction; redlining; socioeconomic status

Subjects: Discrimination in housing; Predatory lending; Right of property; Segregation

00:22:47 - Ghettos and Institutional Discrimination in Housing

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Partial Transcript: That's the origin of the perception that Black folks live in ghettos.

Segment Synopsis: Alfred describes the institutional development of ghettos in the US, specifically to isolate communities of color. He goes on to talk about the historic justifications for this and other systems of oppression, such as employment discrimination. He says that while these justifications often make these institutional actions seem benign, they are ultimately based in financial reasons. He says that this is reflected subtly in the real estate market, where property owners are able to freely discriminate against people without being checked by government agencies, especially as it relates to rental properties. He says it is less prevalent in current day in home buying, but that he has experienced some prejudice in his real estate searches.

Keywords: ghettos; real estate discrimination

Subjects: Discrimination in employment; Racism; Real property--Ownership; Segregation

00:34:58 - Implicit Rental and Real Estate Discrimination

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Partial Transcript: So when you talk about disparities in the rental market, is there more steering and things like this?

Segment Synopsis: Alfred discusses discrimination in the management of rental properties. He talks about price increases for Black renters, regardless of qualifications. He says this applies to both complex managers and single-family home owners, and it is related to monopolies being created by outside investors in the city of Dayton. He goes on to say that real estate discrimination is related to many other facets of discrimination. He talks about lending institutions, that place higher standards on people they consider to be higher risk, which specifically targets people of color, because of their lack of access to other types of financial support. He says this also carries over to property development, where developers use contracts with "minority contractors" in order to meet certain HUD standards, but that this is in name only, and that minorities are still barred from property development which could improve their socioeconomic standing.

Keywords: real estate; redlining; rental housing

Subjects: Discrimination in mortgage loans; Investments; Racism

00:47:00 - Suburbanization, Urban Renewal, and Gentrification

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Partial Transcript: I'm wondering about suburbanization and urban renewal, and public housing versus the suburbs, and how that happened in Dayton?

Segment Synopsis: Alfred talks about suburbia and the perceptions of wealth that have been created about it. He says that because of the lack of certain types of businesses in Black communities, specifically entertainment businesses like movie theaters, bowling allies, and things of that sort, money is being sucked from Black communities into suburban areas.

Keywords: entertainment industry; suburbia

Subjects: Suburbs; disinvestment; gentrification; urban renewal

00:49:41 - Policing

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Partial Transcript: I've met Chief Biel, I've met Sheriff Plumber, I've interacted with deputies and police officers, and I interact with these guys all the time.

Segment Synopsis: Alfred discusses his relationship with police in the Dayton communities, and he attributes his positive interactions to the fact that he is not seen as a threat, as opposed to the poorer Black community he says. He goes on to talk about the criminalization of Black communities by police and the justice system, specifically in relation to drug crimes. He talks about unequal sentences for drug crimes and for-profit prison systems.

Keywords: drug crimes; for-profit prisons

Subjects: Criminal justice, administration of; Police; Police brutality; Racism

00:59:09 - Housing Policy and the Bigger Picture

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Partial Transcript: The housing drama that exists is an extension of a much bigger problem.

Segment Synopsis: Alfred talks about how housing discrimination is part of a larger system of discrimination and control in the US. He discusses the national movement toward higher levels of control over the population. He relates this to police brutality, student loan debt, and cost of living.

Keywords: McDonald's; cell phone industry; college students; cost of living; student debt

Subjects: Education, higher; Police brutality